Мыс Пром Тхеп (Phromthep Cape)
For other uses, see Cape Town (disambiguation).
Clockwise from top: Cape Town CBD, Strand, Clifton beach, Table Mountain, Port of Cape Town, Cape Town City Hall
|Nickname(s): Mother City, Tavern of the Seas|
|Motto(s): Spes Bona (Latin for "Good Hope")|
Cape Town shown within Western Cape
Show map of Western Cape
Location within Cape Town
Cape Town (South Africa)Show map of South Africa
Cape Town (Africa)Show map of Africa
|Coordinates: 33°55′31″S18°25′26″E / 33.92528°S 18.42389°E / -33.92528; 18.42389Coordinates: 33°55′31″S18°25′26″E / 33.92528°S 18.42389°E / -33.92528; 18.42389|
|Municipality||City of Cape Town|
|• Type||Metropolitan municipality|
|• Mayor||Patricia de Lille (DA)|
|• Council||Cape Town City Council|
|• City manager||Achmat Ebrahim|
|• City||400.28 km2 (154.55 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,444.97 km2 (944.01 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,590.4 m (5,217.8 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)|
|Racial makeup (2011)|
|• Black African||15.8%|
|Time zone||SAST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code(street)||7400 to 8099|
|Area code||+27 (0)21|
|GDP||US$ 58.9 billion |
|GDP per capita||US$15,918 |
Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad, [ˈkɑːpstat]) is a coastal city in South Africa. It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg. It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province.
As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Townmetropolitan municipality. The city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. As of 2014[update], it is the 10th most populous city[clarification needed] in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Times and the British Daily Telegraph.
Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was first developed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa.
Main articles: History of Cape Town and Timeline of Cape Town
The earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorerBartolomeu Dias in 1486 who was the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas). It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" (Cabo da Boa Esperança) because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, Portuguese, French, Danish, Dutch and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat.
In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain. It became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise.
The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won. In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the Republic of South Africa.
In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of "swart gevaar". This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished. The most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats and Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans.
School students from Langa, Gugulethu and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of protests against Bantu Education in Soweto in June 1976 and organised gatherings and marches which were met with resistance from the police. A number of school buildings were burnt down.
Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made his first public speech since his imprisonment, from the balcony of Cape Town City Hall hours after being released on 11 February 1990. His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Nobel Square in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront features statues of South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize winners: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela. Since 1994, the city has struggled with problems such as drugs, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recently gang violence. At the same time, the economy has surged to unprecedented levels due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries. With a Gini coefficient of 0.67, Cape Town has the highest rate of equality in South Africa.
Cape Town is located at latitude 33.55° S (approx. the same as Sydney and Buenos Aires and equivalent to Casablanca and Los Angeles in the northern hemisphere) and longitude 18.25° E. Table Mountain, with its near vertical cliffs and flat-topped summit over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) high, and with Devil's Peak and Lion's Head on either side, together form a dramatic mountainous backdrop enclosing the central area of Cape Town, the so-called City Bowl. A thin strip of cloud, known colloquially as the "tablecloth", sometimes forms on top of the mountain. To the immediate south, the Cape Peninsula is a scenic mountainous spine jutting 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwards into the Atlantic Ocean and terminating at Cape Point. There are over 70 peaks above 300 m (980 ft) within Cape Town's official city limits. Many of the city's suburbs lie on the large plain called the Cape Flats, which extends over 50 kilometres (30 mi) to the east and joins the peninsula to the mainland. The Cape Town region is characterised by an extensive coastline, rugged mountain ranges, coastal plains, inland valleys and semi-desert fringes.
UNESCO declared Robben Island in the Western Cape a World Heritage Site in 1999. Robben Island is located in Table Bay, some 6 km west of Bloubergstrand in Cape Town, and stands some 30m above sea level. Robben Island has been used as prison where people were isolated, banished and exiled to for nearly 400 years. It was also used as a leper colony, a post office, a grazing ground, a mental hospital, and an outpost.
Currently visitors can only access the island via the Robben Island Museum boat service, which run three times daily until the beginning of the peak season (1 September). The ferries depart from the Nelson Mandela Gateway at the V&A Waterfront. The boat ride over to Robben's Island can be rough and cold, depending what time of day you go.
Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (KöppenCsb), with mild, moderately wet winters and dry, warm summers. Winter, which lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August, may see large cold fronts entering for limited periods from the Atlantic Ocean with significant precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. Winter months in the city average a maximum of 18.0 °C (64 °F) and minimum of 8.5 °C (47 °F)  Total annual rainfall in the city averages 515 millimetres (20.3 in). Summer, which lasts from early December to March, is warm and dry with an average maximum of 26.0 °C (79 °F) and minimum of 16.0 °C (61 °F). The region can get uncomfortably hot when the Berg Wind, meaning "mountain wind", blows from the Karoo interior for a couple of weeks in February or early March. Late spring and early summer generally feature a strong wind from the south-east, known locally as the south-easter or the Cape Doctor, so called because it blows air pollution away. This wind is caused by a high-pressure system which sits in the South Atlantic to the west of Cape Town, known as the South Atlantic High. Cape Town receives 3,100 hours of sunshine per year.
Water temperatures range greatly, between 10 °C (50 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard, to over 22 °C (72 °F) in False Bay. Average annual Ocean temperatures are between 13 °C (55 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and 17 °C (63 °F) in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo).
Cape Town is currently experiencing a water crisis, following a drought that began in 2015, which is said to be the worst that the region has experienced in one hundred years. The City of Cape Town has projected that Day Zero will be reached on the 4th of June, 2018, when most of the city's water will be shut off, and residents will have to queue to collect a water ration of 25 litres per person per day.
|Climate data for Cape Town (1961–1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||39.3|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||33.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||26.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||15.7|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||10.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||7.4|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.5||4.6||4.8||8.3||11.4||13.3||11.8||13.7||10.4||8.7||4.9||6.3||103.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||72||74||78||81||81||81||80||77||74||71||71||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||337.9||297.4||292.9||233.5||205.3||175.4||193.1||212.1||224.7||277.7||309.8||334.2||3,094|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization,NOAA, South African weather service, eNCA|
Flora and fauna
Main article: Biodiversity of Cape Town
Located in a CIBiodiversity hotspot as well as the unique Cape Floristic Region, the city of Cape Town has one of the highest levels of biodiversity of any equivalent area in the world. These protected areas are a World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2,200 species of plants are confined to Table Mountain – more than exist in the whole of the United Kingdom which has 1200 plant species and 67 endemic plant species. Many of these species, including a great many types of proteas, are endemic to the mountain and can be found nowhere else.
It is home to a total of 19 different vegetation types, of which several are completely endemic to the city and occur nowhere else in the world. It is also the only habitat of hundreds of endemic species, and hundreds of others which are severely restricted or threatened. This enormous species diversity is mainly because the city is uniquely located at the convergence point of several different soil types and micro-climates.
Table Mountain has an unusually rich biodiversity. Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape Fynbos. The main vegetation type is endangered Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, but critically endangeredPeninsula Granite Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld and Afromontane forest occur in smaller portions on the mountain.
Unfortunately, rapid population growth and urban sprawl has covered much of these ecosystems with development. Consequently, Cape Town now has over 300 threatened plant species and 13 which are now extinct. The Cape Peninsula, which lies entirely within the city of Cape Town, has the highest concentration of threatened species of any continental area of equivalent size in the world. Tiny remnants of critically endangered or near extinct plants often survive on road sides, pavements and sports fields. The remaining ecosystems are partially protected through a system of over 30 nature reserves – including the massive Table Mountain National Park.
Main article: List of Cape Town suburbs
Cape Town's urban geography is influenced by the contours of Table Mountain, its surrounding peaks, the Durbanville Hills, and the expansive lowland region known as the Cape Flats. These geographic features in part divide the city into several commonly known groupings of suburbs (equivalent to districts outside South Africa), many of which developed historically together and share common attributes of language and culture.
Main article: City Bowl
The City Bowl is a natural amphitheatre-shaped area bordered by Table Bay and defined by the mountains of Signal Hill, Lion's Head, Table Mountain and Devil's Peak.
The area includes the central business district of Cape Town, the harbour, the Company's Garden, and the residential suburbs of De Waterkant, Devil's Peak, District Six, Zonnebloem, Gardens, Bo-Kaap, Higgovale, Oranjezicht, Schotsche Kloof, Tamboerskloof, University Estate, Vredehoek, Walmer Estate and Woodstock.
The Atlantic Seaboard lies west of Cape Town and Table Mountain, and is characterised by its beaches, cliffs, promenade and hillside communities. The area includes, from north to south, the neighbourhoods of Green Point, Mouille Point, Three Anchor Bay, Sea Point, Fresnaye, Bantry Bay, Clifton, Camps Bay, Llandudno, and Hout Bay. The Atlantic Seaboard has some of the most expensive real estate in South Africa particularly on Nettleton and Clifton Roads in Clifton, Ocean View Drive and St Leon Avenue in Bantry Bay, Theresa Avenue in Bakoven and Fishermans Bend in Llandudno. Camps Bay is home to the highest concentration of multimillionaires in Cape Town and has the highest number of high-priced mansions in South Africa with more than 155 residential units exceeding R20 million (or $US1.8 million).[when?]
The West Coast suburbs lie along the beach to the north of the Cape Town city centre, and include Bloubergstrand, Milnerton, Tableview, West Beach, Big Bay, Sunset Beach, Sunningdale and Parklands, as well as the exurbs of Atlantis and Melkbosstrand. The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station is located within this area and maximum housing density regulations are enforced in much of the area surrounding the nuclear plant.
The Northern Suburbs are Afrikaans-speaking, and include Bellville, Kanonberg, Bothasig, Brooklyn, Burgundy Estate, Durbanville, Edgemead, Elsie's River, Factreton, Goodwood, Kensington, Maitland, Monte Vista, Panorama, Parow, Richwood, Table View, and Welgemoed. The Northern Suburbs are home to Tygerberg Hospital, the largest hospital in the Western Cape and second largest in South Africa
Main article: Southern Suburbs, Cape Town
The Southern Suburbs hug along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, southeast of the city centre. This area has mixed languages but is predominantly English-speaking, and includes, from north to south, Rondebosch, Pinelands, Thornton, Newlands, Mowbray, Observatory, Bishopscourt, Claremont, Lansdowne, Wynberg, Plumstead, Hout Bay, Ottery, and Bergvliet. West of Wynberg lies Constantia which, in addition to being a wealthy neighbourhood, is a notable wine-growing region within the City of Cape Town. Constantia not only offers a luscious suburban living lifestyle, but also attracts tourists for its well-known wine farms and Cape Dutch architecture.
The South Peninsula is generally regarded as the area south of Muizenberg on False Bay and Noordhoek on the Atlantic Ocean, all the way to Cape Point. Until recently quite rural, the population of the area is growing quickly as new coastal developments proliferate and larger plots are subdivided to provide more compact housing. It includes Capri Village, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Masiphumelele, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Ocean View, Scarborough, Simon's Town, St James, Sunnydale and Sun Valley. South Africa's largest naval base is located at Simon's Town harbour, and close by is Boulders Beach, the site of a large colony of African penguins.
The Eastern Suburbs lie southeast of the Afrikaans-speaking neighbourhoods in the Northern Suburbs, beyond the airport, and notably are the site of several new subsidized housing projects and are also Afrikaans-speaking. Communities include Fairdale, Brackenfell, Kraaifontein, Kuils River, Blue Downs, Belhar, Delft, Mfuleni and Protea Hoogte.
Main article: Cape Flats
The Cape Flats (Die Kaapse Vlakte in Afrikaans) is an expansive, low-lying, flat Afrikaans-speaking area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. From the 1950s the area became home to people the apartheid government designated as non-White and has been described by some as 'Apartheid's dumping ground'. Race-based legislation such as the Group Areas Act and pass laws either forced non-white people out of more central urban areas designated for white people and into government-built townships in the Flats or made living in the area illegal, forcing many people designated as Black and Coloured into informal settlements elsewhere in the Flats.
Since then the Flats have been home to much of the population of Greater Cape Town. This area includes the neighbourhoods of Mitchell's Plain, Athlone, Elsie's River, Hanover Park, Bishop Lavis, Manenberg, Strandfontein, Gugulethu, Nyanga, Langa, and Khayelitsha.
Main article: Helderberg
The Helderberg consists of Somerset West, Strand, Gordons Bay and a few other towns. The district takes its name from the imposing Helderberg Mountain, which is Afrikaans for "clear mountain", and culminates at a height of 1,137 metres (3,730 feet) as The Dome.
Main article: City of Cape Town
Cape Town's local government is the City of Cape Town, which is a metropolitan municipality. Cape Town is governed by a 221-member city council. The city is divided into 111 electoral wards; each ward directly elects one member of the council, whilst the other 110 councillors are elected by a system of party-list proportional representation. The Executive Mayor and Executive Deputy Mayor are chosen by the city council.
In the local government elections of 18 May 2011, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won an outright majority, taking 135 of the 221 council seats. The African National Congress, the national ruling party, received 73 seats. As a result of this victory Patricia de Lille, the DA mayoral candidate, was inaugurated as Executive Mayor on 1 June.
2018 2XU New York City Triathlon - Sizzle Video
Опубликовано: 07.02.2018 | Автор: ogtirounro
Всего 6 комментариев.
Cape Town Life, Кейптаун. Отметки «Нравится»: 815. Открыть Страницу «Cape Town Life» на Facebook.
Велоспорт/Тип, Многодневка Cape Epic 2014. Место проведения TriLife.ru. Показывает последние тренировки клуба. Otoniel Gomez.
Еще одна прелесть мыса Promthep Cape – это старый маяк, некогда исправно служивший морякам в качестве ориентира, сейчас он тоже зажигается по ночам, но.
The agricultural sector in the Western Cape has been hard hit by the drought, and after day zero what will happen to the farmers and animals?.
Экскурсия по мысу Промтеп Кейп. При подъезде к Phromthep Cape вы увидите множество сувенирных магазинов, рассчитанных специально на туристов.
Этот отель находится на въезде в торгово-развлекательный район на набережной Виктории и Альфреда, в непосредственной близости от международного.